- actors of persecution or serious harm (Article 6 of the Qualification Directive);
- refugee status and analysis of the protection needs of specific profiles of applicants encountered in practice (Article 9 and 10 of the Qualification Directive);
- subsidiary protection, including the risk of death penalty or execution (Article 15(a) of the Qualification Directive); torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (Article 15(b) of the Qualification Directive); and serious and individual threat to a civilian’s life or person by reason of indiscriminate violence in situations of international or internal armed conflict (Article 15(c) of the Qualification Directive);
- actors of protection (Article 7 of the Qualification Directive);
- internal protection alternative (Article 8 of the Qualification Directive); and
- exclusion (Article 12 and Article 17 of the Qualification Directive).
The country guidance represents the common assessment of the situation in the country of origin by senior policy officials from EU Member States, in accordance with current EU legislation and jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU).
This guidance note does not release Member States from the obligation to individually, objectively and impartially examine each application for international protection. Each decision should be taken on the basis of the individual circumstances of the applicant and the situation in Syria at the moment of the decision, according to precise and up-to-date country information, obtained from various relevant sources (Article 10 of the Asylum Procedures Directive).
The analysis and guidance provided within this document are not exhaustive.
Learn more about the 'Country Guidance: Syria', its basis and scope and the methodology for its development, in the section Introduction.
© European Asylum Support Office, 2020
Catalogue number BZ-02-20-747-EN-Q