According to available information, Iraq is home to approximately 150 tribes. Between 75 % - 80 % of the total Iraqi population are members of a tribe or have kinship to one.
Tribes are often involved in conflicts and armed with heavy weapons. Tribal transgressions can result in violence. It is also reported that tribes have enacted informal justice, revenge, assassinations and disappearances in tribal justice against ISIL suspects and continue to impede the return of persons perceived to have an affiliation to ISIL.
Tribal dispute mechanisms can involve violations of human rights such as the practice of ‘fasliya’ (family members, including women and children, are traded to settle tribal disputes) or 'honour' killings; it may also include retributive killings or banishment.
Persons who do not comply with the will of their tribe can also be subjected to human rights violations such as being ostracised, disowned and expelled or even being killed [Targeting, 3.6; Actors of protection, 6.6; Security situation 2019, 3.5].